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    2021考研英语(二)阅读理解考点考向点睛

    2021-01-05 考研英语 26 ℃ 0 评论
    原文标题:2021考研英语(二)阅读理解考点考向点睛
    本文摘要:一、细节题  【解题方法】题干+选项精确定位法  【解题步骤】  1. 找出题干关键词,精确定位到文章  返回原文可依据以下几个关键点来:  1)可以根据题干所列的地点、时间、人物、事物返回原文;  2)根据出题的顺序返回原文;  3)... ...
    本文关键词:2013考研英语二,考研英语2010真题下载考研英语有用到月份吗
    正文:


      一、细节题


      【解题方法】题干+选项精确定位法


      【解题步骤】


      1. 找出题干关键词,精确定位到文章


      返回原文可依据以下几个关键点来:


      1)可以根据题干所列的地点、时间、人物、事物返回原文;


      2)根据出题的顺序返回原文;


      3)根据题干中或四个选项中的重点词,或同义词返回原文;


      4)通过长难句返回原文。


      2. 将所选答案精确定位到文章


      【例题】2014年Text 1


      21. According to Dumn and Norton, which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?


      [A] A big house


      [B] A special tour


      [C] A stylish car


      [D] A rich meal


      These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms. Dumn and Mr. Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time - as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.


      【解题步骤应用】


      1 题干定位


      Dumn and Norton--- Ms. Dumn and Mr. Norton


      According to---say


      the most rewarding ---far better


      purchase--- to spend money on


      因此,答案定位在 experiences like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema.


      2 选项定位


      答案[B] A special tour


      special----interesting 表示“特别的,有趣的”;


      a tour----trips 表示“旅程”。


      二、推理题


      【解题方法】段落中心句+具体细节


      【解题步骤】


      1.找出题干关键词,精确定位到文章段落。


      2.找出该段落的中心句。


      3.将段落中心句与具体细节句相结合,与选项匹配。绝大多数推理题答案是文章中心或原文某句话的同义表达。正确答案与原文之间基本上不存在推理关系。


      【例题】2014年Text 1


      24. According to the last paragraph, Happy Money ____.


      [A] has left much room for readers’ criticism


      [B] may prove to be a worthwhile purchase


      [C] has predicted a wider income gap in the US.


      [D] may give its readers a sense of achievement


      Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.


      【解题步骤应用】


      1. 题干定位


      题干关键词:the last paragraph


      Happy Money----this book


      2. 段落中心句


      该段中出现了两个句间转折词yet和but,中心句应为最后一个转折词之后的句子,所以本段的中心句为most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent。


      3. 匹配选项


      [B] may prove to be a worthwhile purchase


      worthwhile purchase ---- money well spent 意思是“这本书值得购买”


      三、主旨题


      【解题方法】主题词+串线法


      【解题步骤】


      1. 找出文章的主题词,通常为名词。


      2. 找出文章各个段落的中心句,并将中心句串在一起。


      3. 宏观阅读,匹配选项。正确选项通常体现全局以及概括性信息,因此选项不能选择局部信息,也不能选择范围过宽的信息。



      【例题】2014年Text 1


      25. This text mainly discusses how to____.


      [A] balance feeling good and spending money


      [B] spend large sums of money won in lotteries


      [C] obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent


      [D] become more reasonable in spending on luxuries


      What would you do with $590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found fortune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.


      These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms. Dumn and Mr. Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time — as stories or memories — particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.


      This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib — a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.


      Readers of Happy Money are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.


      【解题步骤应用】


      1. 文章主题词:spending money, happiness


      2. 各个段落的中心句


      第一段:最后一句。该句指出如果老妇人希望这笔新得到的财富获得长期的成就感(lasting feelings of fulfillment),那么最好读一下《开心理财》这本书。


      第二段:第五句。该句指出《开心理财》这本书的两位作者的观点,即最好把钱花在一些经历上,这些经历会随着时间的流逝变得更有价值(more valuable with time)。


      第三段:第一句。该句指出这本书主要涉及的内容是给人们提出了一些“如何从钱财中获得最大幸福感”(happiness bang for your buck)的建议。


      第四段:最后一句。该句指出,这本书值得够买,体现出作者对这本书持肯定态度,即作者赞同这本书中的观点。


      3. 匹配选项


      [C] obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent


      文章的主题词:money spent


      lasting satisfaction ---- happiness


      四、态度题


      【解题方法】用词的感情色彩或举例的方式


      【解题步骤】


      1. 根据题干中的关键词回文定位


      2. 找出该关键词的相关修饰语,进行感情色彩的判断。在判断感情色彩时,应结合以下两点。


      1)作者态度可以分为三大类:a. 正向态度:支持,乐观,赞同; b. 客观、中立、公正;c. 负向态度:反对、批评、怀疑


      2)特别注意作者的态度一般与文章中心相联系。不要把自己的态度纳入其中,而且要注意区分作者的态度和作者引用别人的态度。


      3. 匹配选项。匹配选项时应该注意:


      1)有些选项一定不是正确答案(永陪选项):indifferent(漠不关心);subjective(主观的);biased(有偏见的);puzzled(迷惑不解的)。


      2)一般带有绝对化或者过于强烈的语气的选项必然是错误的,如:strongly;completely;entirely。


      【例题】2014年Text 1


      22. The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is ____.


      [A] critical


      [B] supportive


      [C] sympathetic


      [D] ambiguous


      This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib — a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.


      【解题步骤应用】


      1. 回文定位


      关键词“American’s watching TV”出现在该段第二句话:it seems most people would be better… if they spend less of it watching television (something the average spending a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it)。


      2. 相关修饰词


      1) It would be better if they spend less of it. 意思是“如果少花点时间看电视则会好点。”


      2) hardly jollier意思是“不开心”。


      3) 得出作者的态度是负向的。


      3. 匹配选项


      [A] critical 批评的----负向态度


      五、词汇题


      【解题方法】题干+上下文语境


      【解题步骤】


      1. 找出题干关键词,精确定位到单词所在的语句;


      2. 结合该词所在的上下文语境进行语义判断。在判断意思时,需要注意若该单词是熟悉的词汇,并且不超纲,那么它的字面意思绝对不是正确答案。其正确答案是根据上下文推出的更深层的含义,该含义也许与原单词表面意思没有关系。


      【例题】2013年Text 2


      26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____


      [A] immigrate across the Atlantic.


      [B] leave their home countries for good.


      [C] stay in a foreign country temporarily.


      [D] find permanent jobs overseas.


      A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic included settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7 million people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.


      【解题步骤应用】


      1. 题干定位


      根据关键词回文定位到文章首段最后一句,They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage。其中birds of passage就是对主语they的解释说明,因此,解此题的关键是找出代词they的指代对象。


      2. 上下文语境判断


      首段主要介绍来到美国的移民情况。They指代的就是首段第三句中提到的人,句中说about a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for example, eventually returned to Italy for good(大约四分之一的意大利移民最后又回到了意大利),言下之意,这些移民到了美国,最后却又回到了自己的国家,仅在美国待了一段时间。


      3. 匹配选项


      [C] stay in a foreign country temporarily.


      stay in a foreign country----Italian immigrants,表示“待在国外的人”,即“移民”;


      temporarily----returned to Italy,表示“临时待着,最后又回到自己的国度”。


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