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    阅读真题D19|2008.text3-Napaleon's

    2021-01-05 考研英语 23 ℃ 0 评论
    原文标题:阅读真题D19|2008.text3-Napaleon's
    本文摘要:# 时 间 不 会 等 你 #—用时间换分数,用努力换机遇,用倔强换梦想。Goodmorning~汪汪们每早7点,和老张一起死磕阅读真题每天进步一点点Day18复习作业翻译参考:在某种程度上来说,知识的价值和公共投资能否取得较高回报,取决于... ...
    本文关键词:2008年考研英语真题,考研英语词汇量55002017考研英语一考试分析
    正文:

    # 时 间 不 会 等 你 #




    —用时间换分数,用努力换机遇,用倔强换梦想。




    Goodmorning~汪汪们


    每早7点,和老张一起死磕阅读真题


    每天进步一点点


    Day18复习作业翻译参考:


    在某种程度上来说,知识的价值和公共投资能否取得较高回报,取决于是否能够得到广泛的流通、人们是否能够比较容易地获取这些研究成果。


    参考译文:


    The value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access.


    请配合讲解音频食用,注意记笔记:



    背景音乐:Kelly Rowland、Nelly - Dilemma


    Day 19 全 文 解 析


    【2008英语一年Text3】


    (1/5)In the early 1960s Wilt Chamberlain was one of only three players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) listed at over seven feet. If he had played last season, however, he would have been one of 42. The bodies playing major professional sports have changed dramatically over the years, and managers have been more than willing to adjust team uniforms to fit the growing numbers of bigger, longer frames.


    -在20世纪60年代早期,Wilt Chamberlain是美国国家篮球协会中仅有的身高超过7英尺的三个人之一。可是如果他参加了上个赛季的话,他就变成了42个人的其中之一了。这些年从事主要的职业体育运动中的运动员的身体状况发生了很大的改变,而他们的经理人也更愿意调整队员的运动服来适应队员们更大,更高的身材。


    (2/5)The trend in sports, though, may be obscuring an unrecognized reality: Americans have generally stopped growing. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today’s people – especially those born to families who have lived in the U.S. for many generations – apparently reached their limit in the early 1960s. And they aren’t likely to get any taller. “In the general population today, at this genetic, environmental level, we’ve pretty much gone as far as we can go,” says anthropologist William Cameron Chumlea of Wright State University. In the case of NBA players, their increase in height appears to result from the increasingly common practice of recruiting players from all over the world.


    -虽然体育界的这种趋势可能蒙蔽了一个没有被承认的现实:美国人基本上停止生长了。虽然现在人们比140年前高了2英寸,特别是那些出生在已经移民美国很多代的家庭的那些人,在二十世纪60年代早期,已经明显到达他们的身高的极限。他们已经不可能再长得更高了。“在这个基因和环境的条件下,现在就人们整体来说,已经长到我们能够达到的极限了,”Wright州大学的人类学家William Cameron Chumlea说道。拿NBA球员来说,他们身高的增加似乎是主要由于从世界各地招募球员的这一普遍做法。


    (3/5)Growth, which rarely continues beyond the age of 20, demands calories and nutrients – notably, protein – to feed expanding tissues. At the start of the 20th century, under-nutrition and childhood infections got in the way. But as diet and health improved, children and adolescents have, on average, increased in height by about an inch and a half every 20 years, a pattern known as the secular trend in height. Yet according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, average height – 5′9″ for men, 5′4″ for women – hasn’t really changed since 1960.


    -身高的增长一般在20岁以后就停止了,而发育是需要能量和营养的,其中的蛋白质用来供给组织的生长。在20世纪初,营养不良和儿童疾病妨碍了整体的发育。但是当饮食和健康的改善后,儿童和青少年平均每20年都增长了大概1.5英寸,这就是长高的趋势。根据疾病防治中心的数据,从1960年开始,人们的平均身高(男性5英尺9英寸,女性5英尺4英寸)就没有怎么改变了。


    (4/5)Genetically speaking, there are advantages to avoiding substantial height. During childbirth, larger babies have more difficulty passing through the birth canal. Moreover, even though humans have been upright for millions of years, our feet and back continue to struggle with bipedal posture and cannot easily withstand repeated strain imposed by oversize limbs. “There are some real constraints that are set by the genetic architecture of the individual organism,” says anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University.

    -总的说来,避免太高的身高是有很多优点的。在分娩时,较大的婴儿通过产道是有更多的问题的。而且,就算人类已经直立行走已经几百万年了,我们的脚和背部继续对抗着巨大的压力,这些压力来源于双足直立的姿势和巨大的肢体。“有一些限制是个体器官的基因结构导致的。”西北大学的人类学家William Leonard说道。


    (5/5)Genetic maximums can change, but don’t expect this to happen soon. Claire C. Gordon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick, Mass., ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alteration. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, “you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident.”


    -基因的最大化可以改变,但是不要期待它会马上就能发生。Mass州的Natick的军队研究中心的资深人类学家Claire C. Gordon确信百分之九十的入伍新兵不需要更换新的制服和工作台。她说,不像那些篮球制服,军队的制服长度很长时间都没有改变了。如果你需要预测不远的将来人类的身高而去设计一款新的设备,Gordon说基本上,“你大可使用现在的数据并且非常有把握。”


    文 章 结 构 简 析


    第一段,以张伯伦的例子引出美国职业运动员身高增长的现象,也引出本文的话题;


    第二段,转折说明美国人身高不再增长;


    第三段,分析长高的影响因素,营养等生活条件。从各种数据证明美国人不再增长;


    第四段,说明长高的受制因素;


    最后一段总结,美国人已经到身高极限。


    原文标题:Napaleon's Revenge---In the U.S., height hits its head on the genetic ceiling (拿破仑的复仇,美国人身高达到上限)。


    选 择 题 详 解


    31.Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to_____


    [A] illustrate the change of height of NBA players.


    [B] show the popularity of NBA players in the U.S..


    [C] compare different generations of NBA players.


    [D] assess the achievements of famous NBA players.


    31.Wilt Chamberlain被引用为例为了


    [A] 阐述了美国NBA球员身高的变化。


    [B] 表明NBA球员深受欢迎。


    [C] 表明NBA球员深受欢迎。


    [D] 评价著名NBA球员的成绩。


    【答案】A


    【考点】具体信息题


    【解析】Wilt Chamberlain在第一段,先定位,“In the early 1960s ...have been one of 42.”19世纪60年代初,Wilt Chamberlain是NBA身高超过7尺的3人之一,如果他打了最后一个赛季的话,他将是42人之一。说明后来NBA中身高超过7尺的增加到了42人。也就证明了NBA运动员的身高变化。B显示了美国NBA球员的名声,与原文不符。C比较了NBA两代的球员的区别,与原文不符。


    D评估了著名NBA球员的成绩,与原文不符。故选A。



    32.Which of the following plays a key role in body growth according to the text?


    [A] Genetic modification.


    [B] Natural environment.


    [C] Living standards.


    [D] Daily exercise.


    27.以下哪一项在文本的身体成长中起关键作用?


    [A] 基因变化


    [B] 自然环境


    [C] 生活水平


    [D] 日常锻炼


    【答案】C


    【考点】具体信息题


    【解析】“But as diet ...every 20 years,”说明导致身高增长的因素有饮食和健康的改善,就是参考答案所说的生活水平。A与原文不符。B文中没有提及。D与原文不符。故选C。



    33.On which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?


    [A] Non-Americans add to the average height of the nation.


    [B] Human height is conditioned by the upright posture.


    [C] Americans are the tallest on average in the world.


    [D] Larger babies tend to become taller in adulthood.


    28.作者最有可能同意以下哪些陈述?


    [A] 非美国本土人增加了美国的平均身高。


    [B] 人类身高由于直立行走的姿势决定的。


    [C] 在整个世界中,美国人的平均身高是最高的。


    [D] 身材大的婴儿成年时趋向于变得更高。


    【答案】B


    【考点】推理判断题


    【解析】原文” Moreover, even though ...by oversize limbs.”,表明由于直立起来的姿势人类的身高收到了限制。A文中没有提及。C美国人是世界上平均身高最高的,文中没有说到。D个原文没有说明。故选B。



    34.We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future____


    [A] the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.


    [B] the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.


    [C] genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.


    [D] the existing data of human height will still be applicable.


    29.从最后一段我们可以得知,在不久的将来


    [A] 服装产业将重新考虑制服的尺寸。


    [B] 军队的制服设计将保持不变


    [C] 基因检测将被应用到选择运动员中。


    [D] 人类身高现存的数据仍然适用


    【答案】D


    【考点】段落主旨题


    【解析】最后一段,“you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident.”说明现在的人类身高的数据以后还可以拿来使用。A文中说,“ensures that 90 percent ...without alteration.”90%的新兵制服和工作站无需改动,而参考答案是重新考虑,与原文不符。B军队制服的设计将不变,,文中并无提及。C基因测试将运用到运动员选拔中去,文中无提及。故选D。



    35.The text intends to tell us that___


    [A] the change of human height follows a cyclic pattern.


    [B] human height is becoming even more predictable.


    [C] Americans have reached their genetic growth limit.


    [D] the genetic pattern of Americans has altered.


    30.文章打算告诉我们的是


    [A] 人类身高的变化遵循一种循环周期。


    [B] 人类的身高变得更可预测了。


    [C] 美国人已经达到了生长极限。


    [D] 美国人的基因形态发生了变化。


    【答案】C


    【考点】主旨大意题


    【解析】文章中提及到,由于基因的限制,美国人已经达到了身高的极限。文章说由于各种原因,人类的身高已经达到极限,A与原文不符。B与文中意思不符。D文中无提及。故选C。



    真 题 D 20 任 务


    1、D19复习:认真听Text3解析,完全搞清楚全文分析及解题思路,并复习本篇重点词汇句子。


    2、复习作业:请在完成今天任务的基础上,完成下面这句话的汉翻英,并在评论区完成:


    在现有的基因和环境的条件下,现在就人们整体来说,已经长到我们能够达到的极限了。


    3、D20打卡:完成2008年英语一Text4的精读笔记,5道选择题,第四段英翻汉,拍照发到群里。不得请假!


    本文作者:老张考研英语,转载本文请注明作者出处~

    标签:2008年考研英语真题

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