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    考研英语-2007年考研英语阅读理解Part A Text

    2021-01-05 考研英语 47 ℃ 0 评论
    原文标题:考研英语-2007年考研英语阅读理解Part A Text
    本文摘要:Text 2①For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn.” ②P... ...
    本文关键词:07年考研英语真题,会计考研对英语要求高吗考研英语作文是背整段还是句子
    正文:



    Text 2


    ①For the past several years, the Sunday newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called “Ask Marilyn.” ②People are invited to query Marilyn vos Savant, who at age 10 had tested at a mental level of someone about 23 years old; that gave her an IQ of 228—the highest score ever recorded. ③IQ tests ask you to complete verbal and visual analogies, to envision paper after it has been folded and cut, and to deduce numerical sequences, among other similar tasks. ④So it is a bit confusing when vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joe (whose IQ is 100)as, what’s the difference between love and fondness? Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? ⑤It’s not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.


    ①Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test. ②Just what does it mean to be smart? ③How much of intelligence can be specified, and how much can we learn about it from neurology, genetics, computer science and other fields?


    ①The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score, even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. ②The test comes primarily in two forms: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (both come in adult and children’s version). ③Generally costing several hundred dollars, they are usually given only by psychologists, although variations of them populate bookstores and the World Wide Web. ④Superhigh scores like vos Savant’s are no longer possible, because scoring is now based on a statistical population distribution among age peers, rather than simply dividing the mental age by the chronological age and multiplying by 100. ⑤Other standardized tests, such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), capture the main aspects of IQ tests.


    ①Such standardized tests may not assess all the important elements necessary to succeed in school and in life, argues Robert J. Sternberg. ②In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge, components also critical to problem solving and life success. ③Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well once populations or situations change. ④Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given under low-stress conditions, but under high-stress conditions, IQ was negatively correlated with leadership—that is, it predicted the opposite. ⑤Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.


    26. Which of the following may be required in an intelligence test?


    [A] Answering philosophical questions.


    [B] Folding or cutting paper into different shapes.


    [C] Telling the differences between certain concepts.


    [D] Choosing words or graphs similar to the given ones.


    27. What can be inferred about intelligence testing from Paragraph 3?


    [A] People no longer use IQ scores as an indicator of intelligence.


    [B] More versions of IQ tests are now available on the Internet.


    [C] The test contents and formats for adults and children may be different.


    [D] Scientists have defined the important elements of human intelligence.


    28. People nowadays can no longer achieve IQ scores as high as vos Savant’s because __________.


    [A] the scores are obtained through different computational procedures


    [B] creativity rather than analytical skills is emphasized now


    [C] vos Savant’s case is an extreme one that will not repeat


    [D] the defining characteristic of IQ tests has changed


    29. We can conclude from the last paragraph that __________.


    [A] test scores may not be reliable indicators of one’s ability


    [B] IQ scores and SAT results are highly correlated


    [C] testing involves a lot of guesswork


    [D] traditional tests are out of date


    30. What is the author’s attitude towards IQ tests?


    [A] Supportive. [B] Skeptical. [C] Impartial. [D] Biased.


    答案速查


    26. D 27. C 28. A 29. A 30. B


    试题透析


    26. D


    [解题思路] 题目要求考生回答智商测试的内容, 这里的关键词为intelligence test和required。标准考试都是按照文章从前到后的顺序出题的,通过浏览第一段可以定位到句③IQ test ask you to...。其中,IQ test与intelligence test同义,ask与require同义。在这句话中ask后的三个不定式即为智商测试所考的内容,分别为:词汇和图形类比(complete verbal and visual analogies),想象纸张折叠和剪切后的形状(envision paper after it has been folded and cut),推导数列(deduce numerical sequences)。而选项[D]就是词汇和图形类比测试,选项中的words,graphs,similar分别与文中的verbal,visual,analogies相对应,故[D]为正确选项。


    [干扰排除] 选项[A]和[C]是根据第一段句④、⑤设置的干扰项。这两句指出,当莎凡回答诸如“爱和喜欢之间有什么区别”以及“幸运和巧合的本质是什么”等问题时,人们不禁感到困惑。具备想象物体和推演数字模式的能力(智商测试所体现出来的能力)并不见得能让人回答出优秀诗人和哲学家都难以回答的问题,所以选项[A]和[C]不属于智商测试的范畴,故排除。选项[B]是对该段句③中to envision paper after it has been folded and cut的曲解。原文是指让受试者想象(envision)纸被折叠或剪切后的形状,测试的是想象力,而不是选项[B]表达的动手能力(把纸张折成或剪成不同形状),故排除。


    27. C


    [解题思路] 第三段的句②the test comes primarily in two forms...(both come in adult and children’s version)指出,智商测试主要有两种形式,两种形式均有成人和儿童两个版本,这说明成人和儿童进行的智商测试是不同的,故[C]为正确选项。


    [干扰排除] 该段句①指出,智商测试的使用已经不像过去那样频繁了,但智商分数仍然是定义人类智力的术语,故排除选项[A]。选项[B]可通过该段句③排除。该句指出,互联网上可获得那两种智商测试形式的改编版本(variations),而选项[B]说互联网上智商测试的版本比以前更多了(more versions),这种与过去的比较从文中无法推出,故排除选项[B]。该段只在句③中说智商测试通常由心理学家提供,至于科学家是否明确了人类智力的重要因素,无从得知,所以排除选项[D]。


    28. A


    [解题思路] 文中第三段句④有与题干相类似的表述,即Superhigh scores like vos Savant’s are no longer possible(像沃斯·莎凡那样的超高分数不可能再出现了),接着文章指出原因:现在,分数是以同龄人群的统计人数分布为基础的,而不是简单地用心理年龄除以实际年龄再乘以100,也就是说智商测试成绩的计算方式改变了,故选项[A]为答案。


    [干扰排除] 选项[B]是利用第四段句②设置的干扰项。该句指出传统测试能够很好地评估分析能力和语言能力,但不能评估创造能力和实践能力(fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge),这里指出了传统智商测试的缺点,但不能推出选项[B]“现在更强调创造能力而不是分析能力”。选项[C]没有给出原因,该选项其实只是题干的一个同义表述而已。选项 [D]无从推知,文中只是在第三段句③提到两种智商测试的形式有不同的版本(variations of them),这只是智商测试形式的变化,而不是界定性特征(the defining characteristic)发生了改变。


    29. A


    [解题思路] 文中末段句②指出,传统测试不能评估创造能力和实践能力(fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge)。并且,在末段句④作者指出,在压力大的情况下,智商与领导能力呈现负相关关系。可见智商测验不能准确衡量人的能力,故选项[A]正确。


    [干扰排除] 第三段末句指出SAT吸收了IQ测试的特点,但不能得出二者测试结果密切相关的结论,故选项[B]错误。第四段末句提到SAT的应试技能之一是要知道什么时候进行猜测(when to guess),这说明在测试中,猜测行为是存在的,但不能说明猜测数量的多少。第四段虽然讨论了传统智力测试的一些不足,但是文中并没有说传统智力测试已经“过时了”,所以排除选项[D]。


    30. B


    [解题思路] 本题考查对作者态度的理解。综观全文,作者开篇以“莎凡事例”引发人们对智商测试的思考,然后指出智商测试的分数不能准确说明人的智力高低,最后一段作者进一步指出包括智商测试在内的标准化测试的局限性:不能评估与成功相关的能力;准确性受外界因素影响。因此可以得出结论:作者对于智商测试是持怀疑态度的。此外,文中多处内容都体现了作者对于智商测试的怀疑态度,例如文中第二段句①Clearly, intelligence encompasses more than a score on a test;第四段句③Moreover, IQ tests do not necessarily predict so well...;第四段句④IQ...predicted the opposite,因此选项 [B] 正确。


    [干扰排除] 选项[A]所指的“支持的”与作者的态度是相反的,因此排除。文中作者主要讨论了智商测试的缺点,明确表达了质疑的态度,并不能从“公正”或“有偏见”这个角度来确定作者的态度,故排除选项[C]和[D]。


    词汇突破


    【第一段】


    supplement /5sQplImEnt/ n [C] (报纸、杂志等的)增刊:the Sunday color supplements 周日彩色增刊


    analogy /E5nAlEdVi/ n [C] 类比;比喻:She drew an analogy between childbirth and the creative process. 她将生孩子与创造过程作类比。


    envision /In5vIVn/ v [T] 想象:He wasn’t what I’d expected—I’d envisioned some much taller.他和我所期待的不一样——想象中他的个头应该高得多。


    deduce /dI5dju:s/ v [T] 推论;推断;演绎:That Africa and South America were once joined can be deduced from that fact. [1998 Text 5] 从那一事实中可以推断出非洲和南美曾经是相连的。


    sequence /5si:kwEns/ n [C] (事情发生的)顺序;次序:The questions should be asked in a logical sequence. 这些问题应该按照逻辑顺序提出。


    confusing /kEn5fju:zIN/ adj令人困惑的;令人糊涂的:This might seem very confusing to those who know nothing about it. 这对那些对它一无所知的人来说可能显得很难理解。


    field /fi:ld/ v [T] 回答:He fielded some awkward questions very skillfully. 他非常巧妙地回答了几个尴尬的问题。


    coincidence /kEU5InsIdEns/ n [C] 巧合;巧事:It was a coincidence that he was born on his mother’s birthday. 他在他母亲生日那天出生,真是巧事。


    visualize /5vIVuElaIz/ v [T] 设想;想象:Visualize how you would like to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. [2005 Text 3] 设想一下你所希望的梦的结局,下次再做同样的梦时,试图及时醒来以控制它的进程。


    figure out 弄懂;搞清楚:Help your kids figure out who they are. [2005 Part B] 帮助你的孩子了解自己。


    suit /su:t/ v [T] 适合;适宜于:The city lifestyle seems to suit her—she is certainly looking very well. 城市的生活方式似乎很适合她——她显然看起来气色非常好。


    elude /I5lu:d/ v [T] 使困惑;使不理解:a metaphor that eluded them 他们理解不了的隐喻


    【第二段】


    intelligence /In5telIdVEns/ n [U] 智力;理解力:a child of high / average / low intelligence 高智商 / 普通智商 / 低智商的孩子


    encompass /In5kQmpEs/ v [T] 包含;包括:By its very name, anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind. [2003 Part C] 顾名思义,人类学包括对整个人类的研究。


    neurology /njUE5rClEdVI/ n [U] 神经(病)学:Neurology is the scientific study of the nervous system and its diseases. 神经学是指对神经系统及其疾病进行的科学研究。


    genetics /dVI5netIks/ n [U] 遗传学:He devotes himself to the science of genetics. 他致力于遗传学的研究。


    【第三段】


    variation /7veErI5eIFn/ n [C,U] 变化;变异;变体:White bread is really just a variation of French bread. 白面包其实只是法式面包的一种变化形式。


    populate /5pCpjuleIt/ v [T] 充满;出现于:The film is populated by grotesque persons. 这部电影里面尽是古怪的人。


    distribution /7dIstrI5bju:Fn/ n [C,U] 分布;分配:the highly unequal distribution of economic power 经济实力分布的高度不均衡


    chronological /7krCnE5lCdVIkl/ adj 按时间先后顺序排列的:We arranged the documents in chronological order. 我们把这些文件按时间顺序排列。


    aspect /5Aspekt/ n [C] 方面;层面:In his work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies. [2009 Part B] 在他的著作中,他试图展示在社会的进化过程中,文化的各个方面是如何同时发生变化的。


    【第四段】


    assess /E5ses/ v [T] 评价;评定:Examinations are not the only means of assessing a student’s ability. 考试并不是评定学生能力的唯一手段。


    intelligent /In5telIdVEnt/ adj 有智慧的;聪明的:The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. [2008完形] 人类某些族群的智商要高于其他族群,这种观点仍然是一种不敢公然宣扬的假设理论。


    critical /5krItIkl/ adj 重要的;紧要的;关键性的:It is absolutely critical for us to know the truth.我们知道真相是极其重要的。


    predict /prI5dIkt/ v [T] 预言;预料;预测:If you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident. [2008 Text 3] 如果你需要预测人们在不久的将来的身高以便设计一种装备,那你就可以使用当前的数据并会感觉相当自信。


    be correlated with sth 与……有关系;与……相互关联:Poverty and poor housing are correlated with a shorter life expectancy. 贫穷以及住房条件差和平均寿命较短有关。


    toil /tRIl/ v [I] 长时间地苦干;辛苦劳作:They toiled slowly up / through the hill. 他们吃力地慢慢爬上了山。


    选项词汇


    philosophical /7fIlE5sCfIkl/ adj 哲学的:the philosophical problem of whether there is free will 关于是否存在自由意志的哲学问题


    indicator /5IndIkeItE(r)/ n [C] 指标;标志:Financial responsibility is an indicator of political status. [2007 Text 3] 经济责任是政治地位的指标。


    available /E5veIlEbl/ adj 可获得的;可找到的:We can see from the available statistics that Arizona ranked second of all states in its growth rate of population. [1998 Text 4] 从得到的统计资料中,我们可以看出,亚利桑那州的人口增长率在所有州中排名第二。


    format /5fR:mAt/ n [C, U] (书籍、杂志或报纸的)版式;外观:It’s the same book, but a new format. 还是那本书,但这是新的版式。


    obtain /Eb5teIn/ v [T] (尤指经努力)获得;得到,赢得:You will need to obtain permission from the principal. 你需要得到校长的同意。


    procedure /prE5si:dVE(r)/ n [C,U] 手续;程序,步骤:This is standard procedure for getting rid of toxic waste. 这是清除毒物的标准步骤。


    involve /In5vClv/ v [T]包含;需要:It’s a self-examination that has, at various times, involved issues of responsibility, creative freedom and the corporate bottom line. [1997 Text 4] 这是一种自我反省,在不同时期,它涉及社会责任、创作自由度和公司底线的问题。


    skeptical /5skeptIkl/ adj 持怀疑态度的;不相信的:I am extremely skeptical about what I read in the press. 我很不相信报纸上读到的东西。


    impartial /Im5pB:Fl/ adj不偏不倚的;公正的:We offer impartial advice on tax and insurance. 我们就税收和保险问题提供公正的建议。


    【句式分析】


    ① It ‘s not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure


    形式主语+谓语 表语 真正的主语


    out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best


    真正的主语 定语从句


    poets and philosophers.


    该句的主干部分是It’s not obvious...。It作形式主语,how引导的主语从句是真正的主语。主语从句中the capacity作主语,suits作谓语,one是宾语,而to answer questions是宾语补足语。由and连接的两个不定式短语to visualize objects和to figure out numerical patterns作the capacity的后置定语,对其进一步解释说明。questions之后是that引导的定语从句,对先行词questions作解释说明,定语从句中eluded是谓语。


    ② In his article “How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”, Sternberg notes that


    状语 主语 谓语


    traditional tests best assess analytical and verbal skills but fail to measure creativity


    宾语从句


    and practical knowledge,components also critical to problem solving and life success.


    宾语从句 同位语从句


    该句的主干部分是...Sternberg notes that...。句首in his article...作状语,其中“How Intelligent Is Intelligence Testing?”是article的同位语,表示该文章的标题。that引导的从句作动词notes的宾语,该宾语从句包含由but连接的两个分句。第一个分句中,traditional tests作主语,assess作谓语动词,analytical and verbal skills作宾语。but 连接两个分句表示转折,并且第二个分句but fail to measure creativity and practical knowledge中,省略了主语traditional tests,句末的components...作creativity and practical knowledge的同位语,形容词结构also critical...作components 的后置定语。英语中形容词作后置定语的情况比较多,当形容词自身带有状语而使定语过长时,该形容词通常作后置定语,比如:The boys easiest to teach were in my class. (最容易教的男孩都在我的班上。)


    ③ Research has found that IQ predicted leadership skills when the tests were given


    主语 谓语 宾语从句 条件状语从句


    under low-stress conditions, but under high-stress conditions, IQ was negatively


    条件状语从句 宾语从句


    correlated with leadership—that is, it predicted the opposite.


    宾语从句


    该句的主干部分是Research has found that...,found的宾语是由that引导的宾语从句,该从句包含由but连接的两个分句。在第一分句中,IQ作主语,谓语动词是predicted,leadership skills是宾语,该分句中还包含一个由when引导的条件状语从句。在第二个分句中,but表示转折,under high-stress conditions作状语,该状语可以看做是一个状语从句的省略形式,其完整形式为:when the tests were given under high-stress conditions,表示智商与领导能力呈负相关关系的背景条件。破折号之后的部分,that is, it predicted the opposite对前面but之后的部分进行解释,that is在该句中作插入语,it指代前文的IQ。


    ④ Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters,


    主语 定语从句 谓语 宾语从句


    whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.


    让步状语从句


    该句的主干部分为Anyone... will testify that...,主语anyone之后为who引导的定语从句,对其进行修饰说明。动词testify的宾语为that引导的宾语从句,在该从句中,test-taking skill是主语,matters作谓语动词,意为“要紧;有关系”。该宾语从句中还包含一个由whether...or...引导的让步状语从句,该从句为主系表结构,主语it指代test-taking skill,表语部分为动名词短语knowing...,其中,knowing的宾语部分由“when +不定式”结构及“what +不定式”结构充当。


    全文翻译


    ①过去几年,周日报纸增刊《游行》开辟了一个专栏叫“问问玛丽莲”。②该专栏邀请人们向玛丽莲·沃斯·莎凡提出各种问题。她10岁时测得智商水平相当于23岁左右的常人, 智商为228——有史以来智商测试的最高纪录。③智商测试要求应试者完成的任务常常是:词汇和图形类比、想象纸张折叠和剪切后的形状、推导数列等等。④因此,当莎凡回答普通人(智商为100的)乔提出的诸如“爱与喜欢有何区别?”或“运气和巧合的本质是什么?”这类问题时,人们不禁感到困惑。⑤显然,具备想象物体形状和推演数字模式的能力并不见得能让人回答出一些连最优秀的诗人和哲学家都难以回答的问题。


    ①很明显,智力的高低并不能仅仅通过测试的分数来体现。②那么,什么叫“聪明”呢?③智力在多大程度上可以被明确定义出来?通过神经学、遗传学、计算机科学以及其他领域的研究,我们又能对它了解多少呢?


    ①虽然人们已经不像以前那样频繁地使用智商测试了,但是智商分数似乎仍然是定义人类智力的术语。②智商测试主要有两种形式:斯坦福·比奈智力量表和韦氏智力量表(二者都有成人版和儿童版)。③虽然这两种形式的智商测试会有不同的改编版本充斥于书店和互联网中,但智商测试通常只由心理学家来提供,费用一般在几百美元左右。④像莎凡那样的超高分数不可能再出现了,因为现在分数的计算是以同龄群体的统计人数分布为基础的,而不是简单地用心理年龄除以实际年龄再乘以 100。⑤其他的标准化测试,比如学术评估测验(SAT)和研究生入学考试(GRE)也都充分体现了智商测试的主要特点。


    ①罗伯特·J. 斯滕伯格认为,这类标准化测试也许并不能评估获得学业和生活的成功所必需的全部重要因素。②斯滕伯格在《智力测试有多准?》一文中指出,传统测试能够很好地评估分析能力和语言能力,但无法衡量创造力和实践能力,而这些也是解决问题和获得成功的关键因素。③而且,一旦测试群体或条件发生改变,智商测试未必能预测得很准。④研究发现,在压力小的环境下进行测试,智商能够正确地反映出领导能力的高低;但是在压力大的情况下,智商与领导能力呈负相关关系——也就是说,根据智商分数预测出的领导能力与实际情况是相反的。⑤为SAT苦战过的人都能证实,应试技巧(无论是懂得何时应该猜测,还是什么题目可以略过不答)也很重要。


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